Activity 4.1 has been conceived and formulated in the Proposal following from the top-down methodology, in which strict general aspects and rules are predefined, so that the implementation of study programs follows as a consequence. However, in spite of all possible advantages of pursuing the top-down approach, the inverse bottom-up approach has been found to be more adequate, having in mind versatility of structures and ideas connected to the establishment of doctoral schools and different conditions for their implementation at different universities and within different fields. In this sense, Activity 4.3 Formulation of Selected Study Programs for Doctoral Schools appears to be, in some sense, a prerequisite for Activity 4.1. The PMB concluded several times at its meetings (December 16th, 2014, April 3rd, 2015) that these two activities have to be merged and to be considered as one unified general activity aimed at forming a number of diverse Doctoral Schools with selected study programs. Indeed, specific doctoral schools have to result from the context (at least their first draft) and not vice versa (see the text within Activity 4.3 below). These considerations, essential for the Project, are presented in detail in both books (Doctoral Studies in Serbia, Chapter III and From Doctoral Studies to Doctoral Schools, Chapters VII and VIII) and discussed on numerous occasions (Joint session of the NCHE and NCSRD in Belgrade on December 4th 2014, Conference on Doctoral Schools in Novi Sad on April 3rd 2015, Round table in Belgrade on November 17th 2016, Panel at the TREND Conference on Zlatibor on February 22nd, 2017 and Final Project Conference in Belgrade June 1st, 2017, and other project meetings – see the Project Site). In this sense, the Doctoral Schools will not be regulated obligatorily by accreditation standards – they can be also regulated in a more flexible way through internal university and/or faculty regulations. This decision has been taken at the level of Project as a clear guideline for the future organization of Doctoral Schools.
Formally speaking, the outcome of the Activity 4.1 is given in the form of the Chapter VII of the book From Doctoral Studies to Doctoral Schools, entitled MODELS OF DOCTORAL SCHOOLS IN SERBIA. It should be emphasized that this chapter gives a broader approach to the subject, with respect to the plan given in the Proposal. This is essential for widespread applicability of the concept of Doctoral Schools, and, consequently, for sustainability of the Project.